Tensile testing machine, also known as tension testing, is a fundamental materials science and engineering test in which a sample is subjected to a controlled tension until failure. Properties that are directly measured via a tensile testing machine are ultimate tensile strength, breaking strength, maximum elongation and reduction in area. From these measurements the following properties can also be determined: Young's modulus, , yield strength, and strain-hardening characteristics. Uniaxial tensile testing machine is the most commonly used for obtaining the mechanical characteristics of isotropic materials.
Tensile testing machine is most often carried out at a material testing laboratory. The most common testing machine used in tensile testing machine is the universal testing machine. This type of machine has crossheads which is adjusted for the length of the specimen and Then Is driven to apply tension to the test specimen.
In Tensile, specimen is typically pulled to its breaking point to determine Ultimate tensile strength of material :The Amount of force (F) applied to sample and the extension (ΔL) of the specimen are measured throughout the test .material properties are often expressed in terms of stress (force per unit area) and Strain (change in length ΔL/L(Gauge Length) Tensile Values are then presented on XY plot Call Stress-Strain Curved Testing and measuring procedure are based on the material being tested and its intended application.
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Alignment of the test specimen in the testing machine is critical, because if the specimen is misaligned, either at an angle or offset to one side, the machine will exert a bending force on the specimen. This is especially bad for brittle materials, because it will dramatically skew the results. This situation can be minimized by using spherical seats or U-joints between the grips and the test machine. If the initial portion of the stress–strain curve is curved and not linear, it indicates the specimen is misaligned in the testing machine.
The strain measurements are most commonly measured with an extensometer, but strain gauges are also frequently used on small test specimen . Newer test machines have digital time, force, and elongation measurement systems consisting of electronic sensors connected to a data collection device (often a computer) and software to manipulate and output the data. However, analog machines continue to meet and exceed IS ,BIS ,ASTM, DIN, and ASM metal tensile testing machine accuracy requirements, continuing to be used today